Iranian Literature – Afarin Rahmanifar Sat, 25 Sep 2021 12:06:09 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Iranian Literature – Afarin Rahmanifar 32 32 The government of Punjab uses available resources to promote art and culture; Focus on the well-being of artists Sat, 25 Sep 2021 10:58:49 +0000

The government of the Punjab, under the leadership of the Chief Minister of the Punjab, Sardar Usman Buzdar, uses available resources to promote art and culture and focuses on welfare projects for artists

RAWALPINDI, (UrduPoint / Pakistan Point News – September 25, 2021): The government of Punjab, under the leadership of the Chief Minister of Punjab, Sardar Usman Buzdar, is using available resources to promote art and culture and target projects of well-being for artists.

The Punjab Culture Ministry has taken many steps over the past three years and has taken solid steps for the promotion of arts and culture that have never been done before.

At the Punjab Arts Council (PAC), Rawalpindi alone, despite the Corona pandemic, more than 500 fine arts, literature, music and theater programs have been held.

The Lok Mela in Islamabad includes awareness raising about the Punjab pavilion and the Kashmir issue at the official level.

According to PAC, spokesperson for Rawalpindi, the federal and provincial governments are encouraging young people in any way they can. In this regard, thousands of young people have had the opportunity to express their art through the Punjab Talent Hunt program and the art has emerged from remote areas of Punjab.

Fiction, painting, short film and craft competitions were also held in which special prizes were awarded at the district, division and provincial levels. PAC has tried to introduce Pakistani culture to other countries. In this regard, cultural programs have been organized in collaboration with the embassies of different countries including China, Japan, South Korea and Iran.

The spokesperson informed that the Arts Council, together with the Chinese Embassy, ​​organized a music program in which ancient Chinese music was introduced here.

The exhibition of ancient Japanese calendars also proved to be an important opportunity to expand relations between Pakistan and Japan.

Recently, the Japanese government sent an invitation to Punjab to participate in Expo 2025 to be held in Japan and in which expert craftsmen from across the province would represent Pakistan.

The Punjab Arts Council, in association with Khana e Farhang Iran, also organized an exhibition of ancient copies of the Holy Quran and ancient Iranian antiquities, which further strengthened cultural efforts between the two countries.

The council organized a music program in which the Chinese ambassador himself participated.

The Punjab Arts Council recently took new steps to promote cultural activities with various countries including Turkey, Indonesia and Malaysia.

An audio and video lab is being set up in which children in the Pothohar region would learn audio, video and editing so that they can acquire a skill and get a decent job in the society. Equipment has been provided for the laboratory. The release of funds of one million rupees for the renovation of the auditorium of the Punjab Arts Council is also a testament to the development of cultural institutions in the province. Cultural and artistic courses were organized which benefited millions of students. These courses include Graphic Design, Islamic Calligraphy, Painting, Sewing, Embroidery, Cooking, Home Decorating, Glass Making, Beautician, Fashion, etc.

On the special directives of the Chief Punjabi Minister Sardar Usman Bazdar and his love for Punjabi artists, various social assistance programs have also been launched.

An Artist Support Fund has been launched for Senior Artists, which benefits more than 15,000 artists across the Punjab, under which deserving artists receive a monthly stipend of 5,000 rupees. Hundreds of artists have also received medical and marriage grants. Due to the closure of events due to the Corona outbreak, financial assistance has been provided to artists in Punjab.

The Chief Minister loves the culture of Punjab and has asked the relevant authorities to make all possible efforts to promote the culture of the province. District-level arts councils are also being established. The Arts Councils buildings are under construction in Bhakkar and Sheikhupura while approval has also been given for the Arts Councils in Kasur, Nankana Sahib and Taunsa Sharif.

Punjab Culture Minister Mian Khayal Ahmed Kastro, after taking over the leadership of his ministry, has taken strong steps to promote artistic and cultural activities in the province.

He declared March 14 Cultural Day of Punjab for the first time in history. It will be celebrated throughout Punjab every year at the official level.

Thanks to the Chief Minister of the Punjab, Sardar Usman Buzdar and the Minister of Culture of the Punjab, Khayal Ahmed Kastro, the culture of the Punjab is gaining new recognition.

The government of Punjab has significantly increased the budget of the cultural institution over the past three years. In fiscal year 2021-2022, over Rs 200 million was allocated to renovate various arts councils and build an auditorium and other facilities, which include nine ongoing projects and two new ones. development programs.

The establishment of an audio-video studio at the Punjab Arts Council in Rawalpindi, the renovation of the building and the provision of new chairs and office furniture are also included in this exercise allowance. Likewise, construction works are underway for the Arts Councils of Murree, Sahiwal, Gujranwala, Bhakkar and Bahawalpur.

Recently, the Punjab Arts Council also launched a new website that features photos of cultural activities taking place across the province. In the 21st century, we live in the digital age. Cultural activities are also highlighted on modern platforms Facebook, Instagram and Twitter. The information about the artists is digitized in addition to compiling all the information in the form of a book. Khidmat cards are provided to artists in Punjab in addition to the introduction of an app to facilitate artist registration, available on Android and Apple Play Store.

The new director general of the Punjab Arts Council, Abrar Alam, is also taking new steps to promote cultural activities in the province.


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Dodd Impact’s 2021 Malka Penn Award honors This is My America Fri, 24 Sep 2021 16:49:41 +0000

Dodd Impact Malka Penn Award 2021 This is my america

Author Kim Johnson’s debut novel features
young readers take a critical look at justice in America

Hailed by critics for his crucial look at justice in the United States, This is my america by author Kim Johnson was recognized as the 2021 recipient of the Malka Penn Award for Human Rights in Children’s Literature, presented by Dodd Human Rights Impact at UConn.

“Kim Johnson delivered a compelling story that addresses human rights issues related to historic racism, corruption, police brutality and incarceration at a critical time in our society,” said Glenn Mitoma, Director of Dodd Human Rights Impact. “We are honored to recognize his work and the important message that This is my america brings young people who live in the midst of fighting systemic racism and who are fighting to redefine what fairness really means in the United States.

Published in 2020, This is my america, a compelling young adult debut novel by Johnson, tells the story of 17-year-old Tracy Beaumont, whose father is on death row for a murder he didn’t commit. Every week, she writes letters to Innocence X, imploring them to take up her father’s case. When her brother then becomes a murder suspect, she sets out to uncover the truth behind the crimes and reveal the roots of prejudice in the American justice system.

The producers recently announced that This is my america is in development for television for HBO Max.

The Malka Penn Prize is awarded annually to the author of an outstanding children’s book addressing human rights issues or themes, such as discrimination, equity, poverty, justice, war , peace, slavery or freedom.

Named in honor of author Michele Palmer – who writes under the pseudonym Malka Penn – the award recognizes works of fiction, non-fiction, poetry, memory or biography and written for kindergarten children in high school. Special attention is given to the stories of people who have been touched by social injustices and who, by facing these injustices, have made a difference in their lives or in the lives of others.

A 2021 Malka Penn Award ceremony, featuring Johnson as well as a professional development workshop on anti-racism through literature, will be held on Tuesday, November 2, 2021 at the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center on the UConn Storrs campus .

In addition to This is my america, the Malka Penn Prize committee recognized the following selections as its 2021 honor books:

All that is sad is wrong, by Daniel Nayeri – In this autobiographical novel, Khosru, a 12-year-old refugee from Iran, forced to flee with his mother and sister, is now a college student in Oklahoma. Recognizing that he is perceived as “super weird” by his classmates, he defends himself through storytelling, revealing his family history and the history of his homeland to the increasingly captivated audience of his classmates and his parents. teachers.

Mexico: a story of refugees from the Spanish Civil War, by Maria José Ferrada and illustrated by Ana Penyas – Imaginative and expressive, Mexico tells the story of Los Niños de Morelia – the displaced children of the Spanish Civil War who, in 1937, boarded the ship Mexico bound for Mexico and what their parents hoped would be safety – through the perspective of a child on board the boat.

Dear Justyce, by Nic Stone – Two boys from the same neighborhood, with a common love of reading and hope for the future, find themselves on two different paths.

Get up! Speak!, by Andrew Joyner – A picture book that shares the steps readers can take to be a climate activist, Get up! Speak! is a quick read that’s perfect for starting to engage kids in climate justice and activism.

Nana Akua goes to school, by Tricia Elam Walker and April Harrison – Zura worries about her classmates ‘reaction to her grandmother, who has tribal markings on her face, at Grandparents’ Day at school. Nana Akua is a beautifully written story about diversity and acceptance.

The Malka Penn Award for Human Rights in Children’s Literature is presented by Dodd Human Rights Impact, which works through research, education, advocacy and engagement to foster a culture of human rights in UConn, Connecticut and around the world.

For more information on Dodd Impact, visit

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Ivermectin research has big fraud problem, scientists say Thu, 23 Sep 2021 16:10:00 +0000

Watchdog scientists are sounding the alarm on studies of covid-19 involving ivermectin, a long-used antiparasitic that some say may be effective in treating or preventing viral disease. In a new article this week, they argue that ivermectin research has been hampered by widespread fraud and lax oversight by other researchers. The best way to prevent similar problems from progressing, they say, is to impose stricter standards in general on how data is collected and reanalyzed by scientists conducting evidence reviews.

Ivermectin has become an unexpected cultural totem for the pandemic. Some people, who are also often wary of vaccines or have played down the pandemic, believe that ivermectin is a very effective covid-19 drug that has been kept away from the public at the behest of Big Pharma. Many people have been rightly skeptical of these claims, although some have been misled by reports claiming that ivermectin overdoses have overwhelmed emergency rooms or are causing a massive epidemic of infertility in patients. users.

In truth, Ivermectin is an extremely valuable drug which is very safe and effective when taken as an antiparasitic. But despite some early animal or laboratory studies suggesting that it may also help kill the coronavirus, the bulk of the evidence does not point to a major benefit of the drug for true covid-19 patients, at least to date. . The largest and apparently the highest quality studies found no real effect on mortality or prevention of infection. Meanwhile, the results of some studies that seemed to show a huge effect have since been called into question.

In a new paper published this week in Nature Medicine, scientists from the UK, Australia, Sweden and the US shed light on two such suspicious studies they have drawn attention to in the past: one purported clinical trial in Egypt which has now been pulled from the preprint server where it has been posted amid plagiarism allegations and suspicious data, and another in Iran which has found benefit in reducing patient mortality hospitalized. The Iranian study may not have succeeded in correctly randomizing participants to treatment and control groups, an important step in obtaining valid results, according to the authors.

But they say these examples are just the tip of the iceberg. There are plenty of other ivermectin studies they’ve found where even a quick review of the data reveals glaring errors, conflicting details and numbers so impossible they’ve likely been falsified, the group argues. Not only are these studies bad science, they add, but they are actively harming people.

Hundreds of thousands of people, often in poorer countries with little access to expensive antivirals or experimental drugs that have shown promise in treating covid-19, have been given ivermectin for covid-19 , despite very little solid evidence that it does anything for them. In the United States, some people have been injured while taking ivermectin without medical supervision. As recently as today, New Mexico health officials reported that at least two residents were killed as a result of ivermectin toxicity, while others developed seizures and hallucinations.

“Relying on low-quality or questionable studies in today’s global climate presents serious and immediate damage,” the authors wrote. “The enormous impact of covid-19 and the resulting urgent need to demonstrate the clinical efficacy of new treatment options provide fertile ground for even poorly proven efficacy claims to be amplified, both in the scientific literature. and on social networks. “

One of the main ways to amplify these studies is through what is called a meta-analysis, which is when scientists take a bunch of relevant studies on a topic and try to summarize the state of evidence. While meta-analyzes are an important part of science, they must be done with care to rule out poorly conducted or suspicious research, or their results may be skewed. The authors note that at least two meta-analyzes claimed to find a net benefit for ivermectin, largely thanks to the inclusion of the Egyptian study. Following the withdrawal from this study, the authors of a meta-analysis withdrew their article and said they would reanalyze and republish their work without the Egyptian or Iranian study.

Scientific research is a flawed process at the best of times. But scientists and institutions like academic journals and the media are particularly vulnerable to fraud because the basic premise is that everyone makes a good faith effort to conduct science ethically. Without rigorous checks and balances, even studies so fragile that they collapse at a glance can attract media attention or get published. The new popularity of ivermectin makes some even more skeptical about checking the stones, as many fans will turn a blind eye to questionable studies that claim to have found huge benefits for the drug.

Throughout this year and last, for example, ivermectin proponents have touted a study from Argentina that appeared to show ivermectin could prevent 100% of infections in healthcare workers. Still, a Buzzfeed News survey released earlier this month uncovered evidence that parts of the study’s claimed methods and results simply don’t make sense and may have been fabricated, while some of the authors of this new article have critical this too.

While scientific fraud can be difficult to eradicate, the authors say much more could be done to prevent it from hijacking clinical research, not just for covid-19 but in general. They are asking scientists to adopt a new standard for meta-analyzes, where individual patient data, and not just a summary of that data, is provided by the scientists who conducted the original trials and then collected for analysis. While this would mean more work for scientists (among other things, data needs to be properly anonymized to protect people’s privacy), having access to this kind of raw data would make it much easier for researchers to detect potential fraud or fraud. fatally flawed studies. Studies whose authors do not provide this information should be considered at high risk of bias or excluded altogether from a meta-analysis, they add.

“We recognize that this is a change from a long accepted practice and that it is significantly more rigorous than the standards generally applied today, but we believe that what has happened in the case ivermectin justifies our proposition, “wrote the authors.

Notably, the authors of the Brazilian and Iranian studies have so far refused to make their patient data accessible to anyone.

Clinical trials with ivermectin are still ongoing, in the United States and elsewhere, and it is not inconceivable that the drug may still have modest benefit for covid-19. But as it stands, the state of ivermectin research is shameful. “This research has created undue confidence in the use of ivermectin as a prophylactic or treatment for covid-19, usurped other research agendas, and likely resulted in inappropriate treatment or substandard patient care,” wrote the authors.

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Is Moscow’s thirst for great power status a self-fulfilling prophecy? Wed, 22 Sep 2021 23:00:00 +0000

Throughout history, states recognized as exercising the greatest influence in the international system have been referred to as “great powers”. While the true origins of this concept are debated, it was formalized in Europe after the Napoleonic Wars, and a multipolar structure continued until the end of World War II. A largely bipolar system then emerged between the only two states still capable of claiming large-scale influence in the world, the United States and the Soviet Union, and the extreme difference in power projection capabilities between them and the rest of the world led to the emergence of the concept of “superpower” as a means of further distinguishing them from the traditional great powers.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the United States was able to maintain a position of relative hegemonic unipolarity for about a quarter of a century. However, the annexation of Crimea in 2014, the increasingly controversial relations with China and the US response to these developments indicate that we have entered an era of renewed competition from the great multipolar powers. While the term “superpower” has always been vague in its definition, the United States certainly retains a level of influence that surpasses any potential rivals. China’s vast military and economic assets, as well as its political culture, make it the second most powerful state in the world.

Russia’s position in the post-2014 world remains inconclusive. Although generally considered to be behind the United States and China in the world, Russia has one of the largest and most capable armies in the world and spends enormous resources on the development of power projection capabilities ranging from nuclear, hypersonic, space, computer and cybernetic operations. . Perhaps similar to a contemporary version of Prussia, the state maintains this while in the throes of an extremely small economy. While the Soviet Union also suffered, typically never producing more than half of the US economy per year, Russia has maintained an average of less than ten percent of US GDP over the past five years. While basic economic resources are only part of the equation for great power status, it is an extreme gap nonetheless. The Russian position is found in reverse to that of the European Union. Moscow’s tight budget is often used as the main argument for those who focus on the economy to point to the European Union as the truly third great power behind the United States and China, as Europeans can largely be equals. Americans and Chinese in the global economy. . However, just as Russia’s economy fails to match its military, the same can be said of the European Union’s martial competence compared to its economic position. The EU has virtually no hard power capacity as an institution. Despite this, Russian literature on its position in the world system frequently describes Russia and the EU as comparable great powers, often on the same ground as the United States and China. This assertion, reflected by both political and intellectual elites, testifies to the asymmetric ways in which an understanding of great power status can manifest.

This complexity is interesting to examine only by grassroots assets, but the willingness of a country’s political elite and public to continue its influence is another important measure of power, especially in the context of Russia. After 1991, Russia’s place in the international order and its relations with the West were hotly debated. While Westernists were initially favored in many ways, economic turmoil, the introduction of socially liberal values, and NATO’s expansion ultimately discredited those who sought to integrate into the Western world. Russia’s identity as a unique and sovereign great power, something that has roots extending from Peter the Great, the Napoleonic Wars and especially the Soviet Union, began to reappear and dominate influential circles. . As relations with the West began to stagnate during the 2000s and 2010s, it became clear in 2014 that Moscow was ready to assert itself militarily in the former Soviet space in opposition to Western institutions like the EU. and NATO.

Russia’s regional engagement is important to note, as regional spheres of influence are an essential part of great power claims. Observers with realistic tendencies sometimes argue that the European Union has established this as well, despite its conception of itself as an institution beyond the politics of power. This is particularly important from the Russian perspective of the EU’s Eastern Partnership program, which aims to strengthen relations between Brussels and several former Soviet republics. The influence of Western institutions in the region has been a major concern for Moscow and a reason for the plethora of frozen conflicts in the region. While wars with Russia or with Russian-backed groups and the creation of rump states along the border have led many neighboring populations to view Moscow with contempt and often heightened their commitment to the West, From a geopolitical standpoint, Moscow’s actions may also have strengthened a sphere of influence. Although Moldova, Georgia and Ukraine remain sovereign states with a negative view of Russia, they are unlikely to be accepted into the European Union or NATO due to the interest shown in them. regard by Moscow. The European Union and NATO expressly defend the right to sovereignty of an independent state, but also understand the policy of regional power and are rather hesitant to provoke Russia by expanding strongly in this sensitive region, which therefore gives in Moscow a de facto hold over the future of the region. This goes without mentioning Russia’s relatively successful regional integration networks with friendlier post-Soviet states, namely the Eurasian Economic Union, which may constitute a more traditional understanding of a sphere of influence.

Despite exploring grassroots economic and military strengths, as well as spheres of influence, we still face uncertainty. If regional influence is important, are states like Brazil great powers? Does China have a real sphere of influence? Iran has a will to power as well as notable regional influence, but its inclusion as a great power is very rare.

This leads to what is probably the most important factor in understanding great power status, which is that great powers seem to recognize themselves in the international system. States like Brazil and Iran have not been recognized by the United States, China and others as some of the most influential sovereign actors. In this regard, Russia has had a mixed experience, particularly during the 1990s and 2000s. President Obama notoriously referred to Russia as a mere “regional power” after its actions towards Ukraine in 2014, and the country did not. no shortage of comments on its stagnant economy. Nevertheless, Russia has managed to maintain a level of international reputation similar to that of a great power. Moscow is a hard line on the United Nations structure precisely because of its position as one of the five permanent members of the Security Council, often used as a point of reference for today’s major powers. Russia was also invited to the G7, becoming the G8 from 1997 to 2014, a group generally considered to represent the most powerful states in the western and developed world. Likewise, Moscow has been an important player in the development of the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa), seen at its peak as a grouping of the most powerful non-Western states. Russia was also represented in the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) negotiations for an Iran nuclear deal in 2015, which were limited to the five permanent members of the UN Security Council, at the ‘Germany and the European Union. While it is difficult to say whether Russia has precisely the same capacity to influence the world as the United States and China, it seems to be recognized by these states as worthy to sit alongside them in exclusive global decision-making processes. It may also explain an important reason why Moscow and Beijing have been happy to forge closer ties in recent years. While Russia is drawn to China for economic reasons, China seems to view Russia as the friendliest state with “high status” in the international community. Whether it objectively deserves to be included among these other states or not, Russia certainly recognizes the drastically increased level of influence it acquires by being able to assert the image of a great power. The fact that Russia is asking to be treated as a great power also seems to encourage the proliferation of this image within the international community, advancing a cycle in which belief becomes reality. This is even more evident after the Putin-Biden summit in Geneva this year, in which President Biden squarely reversed Obama’s position and publicly declared that the United States and Russia were “great powers.” If power is defined by its influence over the actions of others, then having the most powerful state in the world to proclaim yourself equal is certainly powerful.

It is perhaps through this area, the synthesis of the will to power with the influence of international recognition, that Russia finds its most salient argument for being considered a great power.

Sven Etienne Peterson is a graduate student in Central and Eastern European, Russian and Eurasian Studies at the University of Glasgow, the University of Tartu and the National Academy of the University of Kiev-Mohyla.

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“Writing the Talking Cure” appears in Persian Tue, 21 Sep 2021 14:14:53 +0000

TEHRAN – A Persian translation of American scholar Jeffrey Berman’s book “Writing the Talking Cure: Irvin D. Yalom and the Literature of Psychotherapy” has arrived in Iranian bookstores.

Published by Qoqnus, the book was translated into Persian by the Nazi Akbari.

Distinguished psychiatrist and psychotherapist, Irvin D. Yalom is also the best-known author of psychotherapy narratives in the United States.

His first volume of essays, “The Executioner of Love”, became an immediate bestseller, and his first novel, “When Nietzsche Cried”, continues to enjoy critical and popular success.

Yalom created a sub-genre of literature, the “history of therapy,” where the therapist learns as much, if not more, than the patient; where therapy never goes as planned; and where the therapist’s apparent failure ultimately turns out to be success.

“Writing the Talking Cure” is the first book to explore all of Yalom’s major writings. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, Berman comments on Yalom’s profound contributions to psychotherapy and literature and emphasizes the recurring ideas that unite his writings: the importance of the therapeutic relationship, the transparency of the therapist, the therapy here and now the prevalence of the anguish of death, reciprocal healing. , and the idea of ​​the wounded healer.

Throughout, Berman discusses what Yalom can teach therapists in particular and the common (and uncommon) reader in general.

Berman is a distinguished professor of English at the University of Albany, State University of New York.

Her previous books include “Writing Widowhood: The Landscapes of Bereavement”, “Death in the Classroom: Writing about Love and Loss” and “Dying to Teach: A Memoir of Love, Loss, and Learning”, all published by SUNY Press.

Photo: A poster for the Persian translation of Jeffrey Berman’s book “Writing the Talking Cure”.


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Pakistani scholars and poets call Ostad Shahriar as a revival of classical poetry Tue, 21 Sep 2021 03:36:00 +0000

Pakistani writers and poets attending a virtual meeting commemorating “Persian Poetry and Literature Day”, hosted by Iran Lahore Cultural House, said Ostad Shahriar was a revival of classical poetry.

AhlulBayt News Agency (ABNA): Pakistani writers and poets attending a virtual meeting commemorating “Persian Poetry and Literature Day”, hosted by Iran Lahore Cultural House, said Ostad Shahriar was a revival of classical poetry.

A virtual meeting commemorating the Day of Persian Poetry and Literature and commemorating Ostad Shahriar was held in the Pakistani city of Lahore, with the participation of Persian language teachers from Lahore University, poets and interested persons by Iranian culture and Persian language.

the participants in their commentaries examined the influence of Persian poetry and literature in explaining Shahriar’s position as a renovator of the style of classical poetry in contemporary times.

Iran’s cultural attaché in Pakistan, Jafar Ronas, expressing the privileged position of Ostad Seyyed Mohammad Hossein Behjat Tabrizi (1906 – September 18, 1988), stated that Shahriar is the most important lyric poet of the classical style of poetry Persian among contemporary poets, despite the many Iranian poets and writers, naming the day of Persian poetry and literature as Master Shahriar shows the importance of this contemporary poet’s position.

Babar Nasim Asi, head of the Iranian room at Lahore State University, said there is a need to study and become acquainted with contemporary Iranian poets in the Pakistani literary community.

Expressing the role of poets in the flourishing of science in Iran, the director of the Department of Iranian Studies at Lahore State University explained the reason why these poems never become stale and out of date like other branches. of science, because these beautiful texts come from the knowledge of poets and lyricists.

Azami Zarrin Nazieh, Persian language teacher, for his part said that the verses of Shahriar’s poetry, composed with innate creativity, are very sweet, rich and pleasant.

He added: “Shahriar was not only a patriot but also a human being, which is why his poems live on in the hearts and souls of all human beings.”

Ali Kamel Qezelbash, one of the Pakistani poets, expressed the living life of Ostad Shahriar and his tireless efforts to create unique works in the form of poetry: the name of “Shahriar” has now crossed borders and most writers of the world are familiar with his name.

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Encyclopedic Muslims – the pinnacle of science in the Islamic world Sun, 19 Sep 2021 16:39:21 +0000

By Stéphanie Oswalt

On the study of paramedics: the Persian scholar Avicenna was considered a medical and philosophical reference until the 16th century. (Image Alliance / The Everett Group)

Mathematics, Astronomy, and Medicine – When the Christian West was in the Middle Ages, science flourished in the Islamic world. The discoveries of Muslim scholars soon inspired the Renaissance.

Chemistry, algorithm, algebra, number, tariff, alcohol, elixir. These are just a few of the Arabic words that have found their way into our everyday language. They refer to a time when the strongholds of knowledge production were in the Islamic world. Research and education on this period Eva Ortman, Iranian and Islamic specialist from Georg-August-Universität Göttingen:

“The flourishing of science is mainly linked to the promotion and sponsorship of science. The beginning of growing interest is linked to the Abbasid period, the second dynasty of Islamic rule that began in the mid-8th century and during this period in particular of the Abbasid era. At the beginning of the ninth century, people began to pay more attention to the knowledge that existed in the Islamic world.

house of wisdom

The House of Wisdom in Baghdad is considered a popular science as a center of learning at the height of Islam which was promoted. A term Eva Ortmann uses only hesitantly: “Blossom”, yes – you can certainly speak of a flowering at the beginning of the Abbasid period, but you also have to be a little careful due to the differentiation of the world. Islamic in very particular regions. Important scientific advances have been made at very different times. “

Islamwissenschaftlerin Sonja Brentjes from the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin agrees: different regions. “

Eva Orthmann refers to the 13th-century region of Iran, where the important astronomer Nasir al-Tin al-Tusi worked, or the region of India in the 16th century Mughal period, where medicine and astronomy flourished. Sonja Brentjes points out that our understanding of flowers has to do with the possibility of measurement: the presence of scientific writings, inventions or artefacts. Mysterious sciences such as alchemy or magic are today difficult to recognize as knowledge. At that time, world-class scientists were also conducting research in these areas.

Friendly characters, rotating bodies

For example Thabit ibn Qurra known in Europe as Thebit. Born in Harran in 826 and died in Baghdad in 901. Mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, magician, physicist, physician and philosopher. “He was apparently a money changer, and since he was a Serapian he had to know something about the stars, planets and astral knowledge,” Brentjes explains.

Sonia Prentice particularly appreciates Ben Karat’s constant for what she says about “beautiful mathematics”: dealing with the theory of so-called “friendly numbers” or calculating the content of rotating solids. He wrote a book, translated into Latin, which served as a manual of mechanics in medieval Europe. Of course, Ibn Qurra is not the only encyclopedist.

Ibn Said, known in the West by the Latin name of Avicenna, is one of them. He was born shortly before 980 in Bukhara in present-day Uzbekistan, and died in 1037 in Hamadan in western Iran. Doctor, scientist, philosopher, poet, lawyer, mathematician, astronomer, alchemist, music theorist and politician. He writes his works in Arabic and Persian.

Multicultural Avicenna

“Perhaps in Avicenna there are two regions that deserve special mention,” says Eva Ortmann. “He is a very important figure in philosophy, but he also wrote medical literature. This includes, for example, Alkhanun, The Canon of Medicine, a book which was later translated into Latin and also in our medical training to the best of my knowledge, it played a role in the 17th century and is a very structured view of the medicine. . “

Avicenna is known from the novel “The Medici” which describes his work in a fictitious form. The Institution of Islamic Studies located in Osnabrück also bears the name of the cosmopolitan world. But in general, little is known in this country about the different eras, places and personalities of learning in the Islamic world.

College two clock diagrams for Al-Jaziri.  (Deutschlandradio / picture alliance / akg-images / Werner Forman)The Candle Clock (left) and the Water Clock: The works of researcher and inventor Al-Jazari are considered the most important source of the progressive state of medieval Arab technology. (Deutschlandradio / picture alliance / akg-images / Werner Forman)

Eva Ortmann and Sonya Prentjes regret to still encounter stereotypes. Many scholars were Muslims, but that was of little importance to their scientific research, Ortmann: “Let’s put it this way: the fact that people are Muslims doesn’t really play such a central role in their activities.

Centuries to come Europe

However, there are areas of Islamic religious practice in which mathematical or astronomical research is used, as Sonya Prentjes puts it: “Three things can be mathematically resolved or worked on, namely: When are the individual prayer times, during the day and night? When is it done? And the second: How can I find where – where is Mecca, and in which direction should I pray? You can also make machines for this, and there are compasses also known as “prayer compass”.

However, scholars from this marriage of Islamic scholars developed systematic methods of experimentation and observation that were not used in Europe until centuries later. They write commentaries on translations from other languages ​​and, like scholar Al Biruni, direct their interest in knowledge to India. Others use their knowledge of new inventions.

Rediscover a wealth of knowledge

For example, Al-Jazari, probably from the northern part of Mesopotamia, lived around the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries and was in the service of the Turkmen dynasty of the Ortocians. Ortmann calls him “an inventor and engineer belonging to the 13th century, who made a number of mechanical inventions, for example clocks.” He is known for his watches and automatic machines. He made precise, technically fun, and fantastically designed water clocks. Perhaps the most famous of these is his Elephant Clock, but he developed after that includes some devices for pumping water from the depths and improving irrigation technology.

Interest in the wealth of knowledge of the Islamic world was first awakened in Europe at the beginning of the modern era, says Prentiges: “The fact that there are so many Arabic, Persian and Turkish manuscripts in Europe today is linked to this attempt so there are very, very, very great efforts on the part of all courts in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries to obtain such texts. “

With the Renaissance, there is again more production of knowledge in Europe – a development that would not have been possible without the preservation and further development of the Islamic world. This knowledge transfer is still little appreciated in this country.

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Leader congratulates Olympic and Paralympic champions Sat, 18 Sep 2021 15:38:00 +0000

The leader of the Islamic Revolution, Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei, congratulated and applauded the champions of recent Olympic and Paralympic competitions, describing them as messengers of hope.
In a meeting with Tokyo Games medalists on Saturday, he said they send a message of perseverance, hope and vitality to society and youth by proving that what seems impossible is actually achievable. , reported.
He praised the great determination of the athletes to win despite the difficulties, adding that such strong will is also found in other sectors such as science, technology, art and literature.
The leader stressed the importance of refusing to recognize the cruel Zionist regime which is trying to gain legitimacy by appearing in international sports competitions while global arrogance is helping it as well.
“The honorable Iranian athlete cannot shake hands with the representative of the criminal [Israeli] regime and recognize them practically for a medal, ”he said, adding that athletes and authorities should not become passive in this regard.
He also called on the sports and foreign ministries and judicial organizations to counter Israel’s reciprocal efforts to ban athletes from participating in international games through legal channels.
The leader then advised sports officials to develop plans for improving the country’s ranking in the Olympics, supporting domestic producers of sports costumes and equipment, paying more attention to Iranian sports and to use them to attract tourists, to prefer to hire Iranian coaches and to tackle financial matters. champions issues.

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National Day of Persian Poetry and Literature celebrated in Tabriz Sat, 18 Sep 2021 14:00:46 +0000

TEHRAN – Groups of Iranian scholars and cultural figures gathered on Friday evening for a meeting at Maqbarat ush-Shoara (Poets’ Cemetery) in Tabriz to celebrate the National Day of Persian Poetry and Literature.

The day, which fell on Saturday this year, is celebrated annually on the anniversary of the death of the most prominent figure in contemporary Persian poetry Mohammad-Hossein Behjat Tabrizi – Shahriar, who is buried in the cemetery.

“No work of any contemporary Persian poet could have influenced the minds of the people as much as that of Shahriar, and his poems are in the memory of many people today,” said the director of the Language Academy. and Persian literature Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel at the meeting.

He pointed to the many poets buried in the cemetery and said, “I don’t suppose there is a city like Tabriz that has such a cemetery housing the graves of many great poets; this cemetery keeps many gems hidden under its ground which represent the greatness and the authenticity of Azerbaijan.

“In a city as grand as Tabriz, a poet like Shahriar was born; someone who belongs to Iran and is the honor of Azerbaijan and Tabriz, ”added Haddad-Adel, who is also the director of the Sadi Foundation, the Iranian organization that promotes the Persian language in the world. ‘foreigner.

He called Shahriar very knowledgeable about classical Persian poetry, history of Persian literature and contemporary Persian poetry, and said, “He not only loved the works of Sadi and Hafez, but also the poems of Malek ush. -Shoaraye Bahar. [Mohammad-Taqi Bahar] and Nima.

“Shahriar was as attached to the Persian language as he loved his mother tongue; if some people want to know about Iran’s policy regarding Persian and Azerbaijani languages, we tell them Shahriar is our role model, he composed both in Persian and Azerbaijani. The government also follows this policy of respecting the Azerbaijani language as the native language of the region and the Persian language as the official language of the country, as the Azerbaijani language and other non-Persian languages ​​are considered as cultural assets of the region. country, ”he said.

The Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance Mohammad-Mehdi Esmaeili also sent a message to the meeting.

He called the Persian language a cultural element that has always strengthened the national identity of Iranians, and added that the pleasant ambience of the language has spread beyond national borders, impressing its lovers across the world. .

Several ensembles also gave performances during the meetings, and a number of academics were honored for their studies on Shahriar.

Shahriar was primarily influenced by the poetry of Hafez, a Persian poet who wrote in the 14th century.

Shahriar, who also composed works in Azerbaijani, published his first collection of poems in 1929 with prefaces by scholars of Persian literature Mohammad-Taqi Bahar, Saeid Nafisi and Pejman Bakhtiari.

“Heidar Babaya Salam” is Shahriar’s most famous collection of Azerbaijani poetry, which highlights his birthplace, the village of Heidar Baba.

Photo: An Iranian ensemble performs at a meeting held at Maqbarat ush-Shoara in Tabriz on September 17, 2021 to celebrate the National Day of Persian Poetry and Literature. (Fars / Ali Hamed-Haqdoost)


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Widening the keyhole of the future Sat, 18 Sep 2021 12:36:00 +0000

The release of a second anthology of Israeli speculative fiction in English translation will be celebrated on September 23 with a special hybrid panel at the Icon Science Fiction Festival in Tel Aviv. Emanuel Lottem and Sheldon Teitelbaum, pillars of the speculative literature community in this country and driving force behind the 2020 Zion’s Fiction anthology will discuss utopia, dystopia and limbotopia with fans of the genre at a gathering dedicated to More Zion’s Fiction.

This second anthology includes works by well-known American Jewish writers like David Brin (who wrote an outpost) and Avram Davidson. Israeli writers like Nadav Almog and Rotem Baruchin and post-Soviet Jewish writers like Elana Gomel and Pavel Amnuel also appear. This gives the reader a bird’s eye view of the three great playing fields where Jewish destinies were played out in the last century.

Davidson’s short story, “Help! I’m Dr Morris Goldepper ”is a gem about toothless human-like aliens who kidnap a dentist to pretend to be humans and defraud the US government. It was included in the anthology as a nod to his military service during the 1948 War of Independence. This generosity of spirit is why Amnuel, a renowned Russian-language writer living here, is also included. We can only hope for a third anthology with works by Lavie Tidhar and Dmitry Glukhovsky. The first is an English-speaking writer born in Israel and hailed for his achievements and the second is a Russian-speaking writer who holds Israeli nationality.

In “The Alien with the Yellow Patch,” an essay she published in With Both Feet on the Cloud: Fantasy in Israel Literature, Gomel indicates that Israel has about a million readers who relish science fiction, as long as ‘it is written in Russian. . His revealing essay sheds light on how Soviet Jews deeply saw their thoughts in – and shaped – the science fiction of the USSR.

In the first story of this anthology, “The Sea of ​​Salt”, she plunges the yellow stain into a dark and infernal realm. In it, a German woman seeking an entry point into the collective trauma of the Holocaust enters a different reality where a biologically-like structure of a death camp is revealed. The yellow stars of this place feed on the inmates, and the Nazi guards have helmets on their heads. Oddly enough, the mighty mythical tale of Lot’s wife, who turns to salt by learning hidden things, was also employed by Greek author Ioanna Bourazopoulou for her 2013 award-winning sci-fi novel What Lot’s Wife Saw.

In their forward, Lottem and Teitelbaum introduce the reader to the many questions arising from Israeli science fiction. “For the first book, we rewrote the back about fifty times,” Lottem told me, “this one took a little less work.”

Gomel notes that unlike their Anglo-American counterparts who imagine new borders in space and linear progression in time, Israelis tend to portray darker realities. Bourazopoulou, who envisioned a dystopian post-climate change Europe where the Mediterranean Sea reaches Paris and people are addicted to a salt-like substance, could point to a larger truth. The Israelis may not share the American imagination, but they are very much in tune with that of their neighbors along the coast.

Lottem and Teitelbaum claim that Israeli writers do not seem interested in exploring the results of an Iranian nuclear attack on Israel or the logical result of that country’s population doubling by the turn of the century. It sounds strange compared to American writers who dared to imagine what nuclear war could do to ordinary people as in Judith Merril’s short story “That Only a Mother” (1948) or the 1973 film Soylent Green, in which a Earth forces society to devour itself. Israeli writers seem stuck in limbo. Co-invented by Vered Shemtov and Gomel, it means to be stuck in an eternal present.

Perhaps this is the reason why so many Hebrew-speaking writers turn to fantasy. Almog’s “The Thirteenth Fairy” is a dark tale of the classic “Sleeping Beauty” fairy tale and Baruchin’s “Latte, To Go” is a wonderfully imaginative fantasy tale. In it, every city in the land and in the world has its own mind and a human guardian must keep the peace to ensure that Ramat Gan (for example) does not take over Givatayim. Each spirit dresses and behaves in a unique way that truly reflects Israeli culture. In this story, the Guardian is in love with Tel Aviv. He is also stuck in this land for life, as the Guardians are unable to abandon the cities they must protect.

Science fiction uses certain devices. Imaginary technology enables intrigue, and intrigue is content, Lottem told me.

“I do device discounts,” which means he doesn’t mind if magic drives the story or the latest scientific breakthrough, “never content. That’s why I can tell you that in this country people write good science fiction.

While Israeli academics produce impressive cultural studies that use sci-fi as a way to make their point, they tend to ignore Hebrew sci-fi and focus on American examples like Star Trek, a series. classic television. Oren Ben-Yosef, for example, often employs it in his 2021 “Eaters of Worlds” which explore vegan values ​​through the prism of science fiction. In 2019, Professor Uriya Shavit published “Meat”, in which a woman takes her granddaughter to eat beef in a world where it is forbidden to kill animals for food. Ignored by Ben-Yosef, the book shares a lot with Hamutal Levin’s “Me and Nana Go Shopping,” included in this anthology.

Writing science fiction reviews in the Israeli press in the early 1980s, poet Yona Wallach wrote that the role of science fiction is to widen the keyhole from which we can see the present moment. Interest in Israeli popular culture on a never-before-seen global scale (Fauda, ​​Homeland) means that Hebrew speculative fiction has never been so well positioned to reach the stars.

More Zion’s Fiction will be launched during the Icon Science Fiction Festival in a special hybrid panel on Thursday, September 23 at 4 p.m. ET. Speakers will be Lottem, Teitelbaum, Gomel, Noa Mannheim and Ehud Maimon. Admission is free but customers must register to obtain a ticket for the Icon Festival under current health regulations. For tickets, please email:

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