The Development of Cyberspace Warfare in the United States, Part 6

Organic Air Force teams, cutting-edge Silicon Valley startups, or large traditional defense contractors are not mutually exclusive. Each group brings different ideas, processes, and experiences to the spectrum of cyber issues, and the development of tools driven by each team provides timely and requested capabilities to cyber forces.

Additionally, the Air Force and Navy are working on an agreement to allow their respective software factories to share more code and products. The key to the deal is to make it easier for both services to use each other’s platforms and codes, i.e. the Air Force’s Platform One and the Black Pearl of the Navy.

Platform One is business continuity cleared, which means its environment and coding processes have been certified for security, and all product and platform updates do not require additional approval before being published, which reduces the time required to activate the software. .

The Navy’s Black Pearl platform is newer than the 1 platform, and therefore the Navy wants to build on the work of the Air Force to provide Navy and Marine Corps personnel with a code-ready DevSecOps environment.

Developing and using emerging technologies to generate new combat capabilities is another step towards controlling cyberspace. The use of emerging technologies could become a turning point for future operations in cyberspace, disrupting traditional and established balances of military power and providing other nations with particular operational advantages. The United States of America and Western countries are increasing investment in emerging technologies, strengthening research, development and use of artificial intelligence, quantum physics, 5G; cloud computing, blockchain (….) and other technologies, with a view to greatly improving global combat capabilities and taking the lead in the future strategic confrontation. The blockchain is defined as a digital ledger whose entries are grouped into blocks, linked together in chronological order, whose integrity is guaranteed by the use of cryptography. Although its size is expected to increase over time, it is immutable in the quantum concept. Its content, once written by a standardized process, is no longer modifiable or deletable, unless the entire process is invalidated.

Meanwhile, US Secretary of Defense General Lloyd James Austin said last July that leadership in artificial intelligence could advance the future technological and military advantages of the state, from decision-making data-driven to human-machine collaboration, thus making the US military more efficient and agile in the near future.

The Department of Defense’s AI vision revolves around “integrated deterrence,” in which AI and related technologies will provide intelligence and operational benefits to the U.S. military. $1.5 billion will be used to fund the Joint Artificial Intelligence Center (JAIC) over the next 5 years.

The JAIC has focused its attention on 2021, hoping to become a “central artificial intelligence library” for the military, enabling intelligence services to acquire tools, models and other software to develop intelligence programs artificial. The basis for this work is the Joint Common Foundation (JCF), with the aim of making it a place where all people can contribute their data, while the JAIC can provide services such as tagging, management and ultimately , storage and algorithmic classification. The JCF reached “Initial Operational Capability” in March 2022 and already has several users of the service. The JCF will play a central role in the JAIC and, in particular, it will be a key tool in advancing the implementation of AI across the Department of Defense (DOD).

The JAIC plans to periodically update the platform to expand data hosting, coding, and other capabilities, eventually becoming a “full operational capability.”

JAIC signed a contract in January 2022 with the nonprofit Indiana Innovation Institute to build and operate the Tradewind platform. The platform is designed to create an ecosystem that accelerates the delivery of artificial intelligence capabilities to the US military, enabling it to acquire and procure the best AI solutions more effectively and efficiently. Through Tradewind, the JAIC hopes to foster a “nationwide” approach to supporting AI innovation within the Department of Defense by creating a seamless environment between the institution, academia, and industry. ‘industry. The ecosystem has three main goals: 1. find and acquire ethical AI; 2. integrate all AI development entities in business, industry and academia; 3. Enable the Department of Defense to apply AI capabilities to operations.

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is working on about 30 AI-focused programs and ninety AI-related programs. DARPA’s AI program covers three “waves” of AI development: 1. symbolic reasoning, in which engineers formulate rules to characterize domain knowledge; 2. Apply big data-based statistical models to specific domains to provide advanced classification and prediction capabilities, such as using machine learning techniques to perform intelligence surveillance reconnaissance and predictive vehicle maintenance ; 3. treat computers as true partners.

The US Army is working with partners such as Carnegie Mellon University to create shared toolkits containing reusable algorithms, test data and development tools. The Toolkit is a virtual “universal platform” or “workbench” that army units can leverage to develop the artificial intelligence they need without having to create it from scratch. The Army Artificial Intelligence Task Force has developed a working baseline version that will be validated and refined using unclassified datasets to meet the operational requirements of Multi-Domain Operations (MDO) and Joint Inter-Domain Command and Control (JADC2).

The Army’s Artificial Intelligence Task Force and the JAIC will work closely together to ensure that the Army’s Joint Data Platform is integrated with that of the JAIC.

With specific regard to 5G, the Department of Defense has made it a key modernization priority, requesting $1.5 billion in funding for 5G and microelectronics programs in its fiscal year 2021 budget request. 2020, the Department of Defense had announced a $600 million investment in 5G testbeds at five US military facilities, with testing efforts focused on how the military can leverage different applications or concepts , including dynamic spectrum utilization, 5G-enabled command and control, intelligent library and logistics, and virtual and augmented reality. The first 5 sites constitute Batch 1 of the DOD 5G program. In 2021, the DOD awarded contracts to seven Batch 2 sites. Initiatives at these bases include wireless connectivity, the use of 5G to improve aircraft mission readiness, and immersive 5G-enabled training. In both bundles, each project includes a testbed, demonstration applications, and network enhancements or tools that can be used to optimize 5G networks.

The US Department of Defense believes its 5G plan includes three driving forces: 1. Acceleration, by driving the use of 5G technology through testing and development of advanced prototypes for dual-use applications; 2. operational penetration, through the development of technologies to protect 5G and support insecure use of secure networks; 3. Innovation, by conducting the research and development needed to move to 6G and beyond.

The program made significant progress in June with the successful demonstration of a suite of advanced 5G networks designed and built exclusively in the United States of America for logistics modernization. The prototype project, known as the Smart Warehouse Technology Early Capability Demonstration, involves a total investment of $90 million and uses 380 MHz of medium and millimeter wave spectrum, enabling high-speed downloads of 1.5 gigabits per second. and a latency of less than 15 milliseconds. In computing and telecommunications, latency (or latency time) refers – in a computing and/or telecommunications system – to the time interval between the moment when the input/signal is sent to the system and the moment when its output is available. The demonstrated system prototype is based on the next-generation Open Radio Network standard and complies with the US Department of Defense’s Zero Trust Architecture specifications for local security and secure connectivity to other networks. Upon completion of the project, the prototype system will be deployed as a private network at the Marine Corps Logistics Base in Albany, Georgia, utilizing up to 750 megahertz of available bandwidth for superior performance. The prototype is the first demonstration of the progress of batch 1 of 5G projects.

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